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OSPF Question And Answers [CCNP]

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What is OSPF Routing Protocol?

Open shortest path first is an Open Standard Link State routing protocol which works by using Dijkastra algorithm to initially construct the shortest paths and follows that by populating the routing table with resulting best paths.

What are the steps required to change Neighborship into adjacency?
1.Two-way communication (using Hello Protocol).
2.Database Synchronization which means exchange of Database Description (DD) packets, Link State Request (LSR) packets, Link State Update (LSU) packets.
After Database synchronization is complete, the two routers are considered adjacent.

Explain LSA (Link-State Advertisement), LSU (Link State Update) and LSR (Link State Request)?
The LSAs (Link-State Advertisements) are used by OSPF routers to exchange routing and topology information. When two neighbors decide to exchange routes, they send each other a list of all LSAs in their respective topology database. Each router then checks its topology database and sends Link State Request (LSR) message requesting all LSAs that was not found in its topology table. Other router responds with the Link State Update (LSU) that contains all LSAs requested by the neighbor.

Explain OSPF Router ID?
Router Id is used to identify the Router. Highest IP address of the router's loopback interfaces is chosen as the Router ID, If no loopback is present than highest IP address of the router's physical interfaces will be chosen as Router ID. OSPF prevents neighborships between routers with duplicate RIDs. All OSPF RIDs in a domain should be unique. OSPF Router ID should not be changed after the OSPF process is started and the OSPF neighborships are established. If you change the OSPF router ID, we need to either reload the IOS or use "clear ip ospf process" command (restart the OSPF process) for changed RID to take effect.
To manually configure the router ID
R1(config)# router ospf 5
R1(config-router)# router-id 5.5.5.5

Can we use OSPF without backbone area?
Yes, but than only intra-area communication is possible. Inter-area communication is not possible without backbone area.

What is the difference between an OPPF neighbor and an adjacent neighbor?
LSAs are exchanged only among adjacent routers not among neighbor routers.

What are different neighbour states in OSPF ?
OSPF routers need to go through several state before establishing a neighbor relationship -
1. Down - No Hello packets have been received on the interface.
2. Attempt - In Attempt state neighbors must be configured manually. It applies only to nonbroadcast multi-access (NBMA) networks.
3. Init - Router has received a Hello message from the other OSFP router.
4. 2way - the neighbor has received the Hello message and replied with a Hello message of his own. Bidirectional Communication has been established. In Broadcast network DR-BDR election can occur after this point.
5. Exstart - DR & BDR establish adjacencies with each router in the network. Master-slave election will takes place (Master will send its DBD first).
6. Exchange - Routing information is exchanged using DBD (Database Descriptor) packets, Link-State Request (LSR) and Link-State Update packets may also be sent.
7. Loading - LSRs (Link State Requests) are send to neighbors for every network it doesn't know about. The Neighbor replies with the LSUs (Link State Updates) which contain information about requested networks. After all the requested information have been received, other neighbor goes through the same process.
8. Full - All neighbor routers have the synchronized database and adjacencies has been established.

What is an LSA? How does an LSA differ from an OSPF Update packet?
A router originates a link state advertisement to describe one or more destinations. An OSPF
Update packet transports LSAs from one neighbor to another. Although LSAs are flooded
throughout an area or OSPF domain, Update packets never leave a data link.

Explain different OSPF 
1. Router LSA (Type1)  - Each router geLSA Types?nerates a Type 1 LSA that lists its active interfaces, IP addresses, neighbors and the cost. LSA Type 1 is flooded only within an area.
2. Network LSA (Type2) - Type2 LSA is sent out by the designated router (DR) and lists all the routers on the segment it is adjacent to. Type 2 LSA are flooded only within an area.
3. Summary LSA (Type3) - Type 3 LSAs are generated by Area Border Routers (ABRs) to advertise networks from one area to the rest of the areas in Autonomous System.
4. Summary ASBR LSA (Type4) - Generated by the ABR. It contain routes to ASBRs.
5. External LSA (Type5) - External LSAs are generated by ASBRs and contain routes to networks that are external to the current Autonomous System.
6. Not-So-Stubby Area LSA (Type7) - Stub areas do not allow Type 5 LSAs.  A Not So Stubby Area (NSSA) allows advertisement of Type 5 LSA as Type 7 LSAs. Type LSA is generated by an ASBR inside a Not So Stubby Area (NSSA) to describe routes redistributed into the NSSA.



Can I use the distribute-list in/out command with OSPF to filter routes?

 The distribute-list commands are supported in OSPF but work differently than distance-vector routing protocols such as Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP). OSPF routes cannot be filtered from entering the OSPF database. Thedistribute-list in command only filters routes from entering the routing table; it does not prevent link-state packets from being propagated. Therefore, this command does not help conserve router memory, and it does not prohibit a router from propagating filtered routes to other routers.
 Caution: Use of the distribute-list in command in OSPF may lead to routing loops in the network if not implemented carefully.
The command distribute-list out works only on the routes being redistributed by the Autonomous System Boundary Routers (ASBRs) into OSPF. It can be applied to external type 2 and external type 1 routes, but not to intra-area and interarea routes.

How can I give preference to OSPF interarea routes over intra-area routes?
 According to section 11 of RFC 2328 Description: leavingcisco.com, the order of preference for OSPF routes is:
  • intra-area routes, O
  • interarea routes, O IA
  • external routes type 1, O E1
  • external routes type 2, O E2
This rule of preference cannot be changed. However, it applies only within a single OSPF process. If a router is running more than one OSPF process, route comparison occurs. With route comparison, the metrics and administrative distances (if they have been changed) of the OSPF processes are compared. Route types are disregarded when routes supplied by two different OSPF processes are compared.

Do I need to manually set up adjacencies for routers on the Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS) cloud with the OSPF neighbor subcommand?
 In Cisco IOS Software releases earlier than Cisco IOS Software Release 10.0, the neighbor command was required to establish adjacencies over nonbroadcast multiaccess (NBMA) networks (such as Frame Relay, X.25, and SMDS). With Cisco IOS Software Release 10.0 and later, you can use the ip ospf network broadcast command to define the network as a broadcast network, eliminating the need for the neighbor command. If you are not using a fully meshed SMDS cloud, you must use the ip ospf network point-to-multipoint command.

When routes are redistributed between OSPF processes, are all shortest path first algorithm (SPF) metrics preserved, or is the default metric value used?
 The SPF metrics are preserved. The redistribution between them is like redistribution between any two IP routing processes.

 How does Cisco accommodate OSPF routing on partial-mesh Frame Relay networks?
 You can configure OSPF to understand whether it should attempt to use multicast facilities on a multi-access interface. Also, if multicast is available, OSPF uses it for its normal multicasts.
Cisco IOS Software Release 10.0 includes a feature called subinterfaces. You can use subinterfaces with Frame Relay to tie together a set of virtual circuits (VCs) to form a virtual interface, which acts as a single IP subnet. All systems within the subnet should be fully meshed. With Cisco IOS Software Releases 10.3, 11.0 and later, the ip ospf point-to-multipoint command is also available.

 Which address-wild-mask pair should I use for assigning an unnumbered interface to an area?
 When an unnumbered interface is configured, it references another interface on the router. When enabling OSPF on the unnumbered interface, use the address-wild-mask pair of interfaces to which the unnumbered interface is pointing.

Can I have one numbered side and leave the other side unnumbered in OSPF?
 No, OSPF does not work if you have one side numbered and the other side unnumbered. This creates a discrepancy in the OSPF database that prevents routes from being installed in the routing table.

Why do I receive the "cannot allocate router id" error message when I configure Router OSPF One?
 OSPF picks up the highest IP address as a router ID. If there are no interfaces in up/up mode with an IP address, it returns this error message. To correct the problem, configure a loopback interface.

Why do I receive the "unknown routing protocol" error message when I configure Router OSPF One?
 Your software may not support OSPF. This error message occurs most frequently with the Cisco 1600 series routers. If you are using a 1600 router, you need a Plus image to run OSPF.

 What do the states DR, BDR, and DROTHER mean in show ip ospf interface command output?

DR means designated router. BDR means backup designated router. DROTHER indicates a router that is neither the DR or the BDR. The DR generates a Network Link-State Advertisement, which lists all the routers on that network.

Why master slave needs to be elected between two neighbour interface?
Master sends its DBD (Database Description) First.

What is the requirement of doing summarization?
1. Reduces the amount of information stored in routing tables.
2. Allocates an existing pool of addresses more economically.
3. Lessens the load on router processor and memory resources.
4. Less number of update messages.
5. Less bandwidth.

How routes are selected in OSPF according to preference?
Intra-Area routes(0)> Inter-Area routes(0-IA)> External-Type-1(E1)> External-Type-2(E2)> NSSA-1(N1)> NSSA-2(N2).

What is Route Redistribution?
Route redistribution is the process of taking routes learned via one routing protocol and injecting those routes into another routing protocol domain.
For example two companies might merge, one company is using Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) and the other is using Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). Route redistribution allows exchanging of routes between the two routing domains with a minimal amount of configuration and with little disruption to the existing networks.

Why are loopbacks advertised as /32 host routes in OSPF?
 Loopbacks are considered host routes in OSPF, and they are advertised as /32. For more information, refer to section 9.1 of RFC 2328 Description: leavingcisco.com. In Cisco IOS Software Releases 11.3T and 12.0, if the ip ospf network point-to-point command is configured under loopbacks, OSPF advertises the loopback subnet as the actual subnet configured on loopbacks. ISDN dialer interface advertises /32 subnet instead of its configured subnet mask. This is an expected behavior if ip ospf network point-to-multipoint is configured.
For example, consider two routers (R1 and R2) connected via FastEthernet interface. R1 has the loopback configured with the ip ospf network point-to-point command and advertises the loopback in OSPF.
interface Loopback0
 ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
 ip ospf network point-to-point
When checked in router R2 with the show ip route ospf command, the route 1.1.1.1 is seen as:

!..output truncated

   
 1.0.0.0/24 is subnetted, 1 subnets

O       1.1.1.0 [110/11] via 10.1.1.1, 00:00:02, FastEthernet0/0
However, when the ip ospf network point-to-point command is removed from R1 to 0 interface, the route 1.1.1.1 on R2 is seen as:
                                                                       
1.0.0.0/32 is subnetted, 1 subnets


O       1.1.1.1 [110/11] via 10.1.1.1, 00:00:01, FastEthernet0/0

What is the default redistribution OSPF cost ?
Redistribution into OSPF uses the following defaults:-
1. When taking from BGP, use a default metric of 1.
2. When taking from another OSPF process, take the source route’s metric.
3. When taking from all other sources, use a default metric of 20.

What is the difference between Type-1 (E1) & Type-2 (E2) redistribution?
Type-2 is the default route type for routes learned via redistribution. The key with E2 routes is that the cost of these routes reflects only the redistributed cost. E2 = only redistributed cost.

Type-1 redistributed routes reflects cost to reach ASBR + redistributed cost. E1 = cost to reach ASBR + redistributed cost

Explain OSPF Virtual Link?
OSPF requires the use of a backbone area (area 0) with each area connecting to area 0 through an ABR. However in some cases, regular area might not have a convenient point of connection to the backbone area. In this case, OSPF uses virtual link to connect that regular area to backbone area virtually. An OSPF virtual link allows two ABRs that connect to the same non-backbone area to form a neighbor relationship through that non-backbone area, even when separated by many other routers and subnets. This virtual link acts like a virtual point-to-point connection between the two routers, with that link inside area 0. The routers form a neighbor relationship, inside area 0, and flood LSAs over that link.

Explain OSPF Stub Area and different types of Stub Areas?



Stub Area Sometimes we need to control the advertisement of external routes into an area. This area is called Stub area. Stub areas are not capable of importing routes external to ospf.Type 4 & Type 5 LSA are filtered from Stub areas and a default route is injected into that area by ABR in place of external routes.


  • To make area stub we have to give # area 1 stub command on all routers of that area.
Three restrictions apply to OSPF stub areas
1.No virtual links are allowed in stub area.
2.Stub area cannot be a backbone area.
3.No Autonomous System Boundary Routers are allowed.

Totally Stubby Area
Like stub areas, totally stubby areas do not receive type 4 or 5 LSAs from their ABRs. However, they also do not receive type 3 LSAs. It only allows advertisement of internal routes in that area.

  • To make area totally stubby area we have to give # area 1 stub no-summary command on ABR.

Not-So-Stubby Areas
The motivation behind NSSA is to allow OSPF stub areas to carry external routes. External routes are imported into OSPF NSSA as Type 7 LSA by ASBR. Type 7 LSA cannot go into area 0 so it is converted back into Type 5 LSA by ABR and injected into area 0.

  • To make area Not-So-Stubby Area we have to give # area 1 NSSA command on all routers of that area.

Totally NSSA
Along with Type 4 & Type 5 LSA, Type 3 LSA will also be filtered in Totally NSSA.

  • To make area Totally Not-So-Stubby Area we have to give # area 1 nssa no-summary command on ABR of that area.
Lsa information area vise

How do I change the reference bandwidth in OSPF?
We can change the reference bandwidth using the ospf auto-cost reference-bandwidth command under router ospf. By default, reference bandwidth is 100 Mbps.

How does OSPF calculate its metric or cost?
OSPF uses Cost as its metric. The formula to calculate the OSPF cost is reference bandwidth divided by interface bandwidth. For example, in the case of Ethernet, it is 100 Mbps / 10 Mbps = 10.
If # ip ospf cost _ command is used on the interface, it overrides this formulated cost.

What algorithm is used by OSPF if equal cost routes exist?

 If equal cost routes exist, OSPF uses CEF load balancing. For more information, refer to Troubleshooting Load Balancing Over Parallel Links Using Cisco Express Forwarding.

Explain OSPF Authentication?
These are the three different types of authentication supported by OSPF to secure routing updates.
1.Null Authentication - also called Type 0. It means no authentication information is included in the packet header. It is the default.
2.Plain Text Authentication - also called Type 1. It uses simple clear-text passwords.
3.MD5 Authentication - also called Type 2. It uses MD5 cryptographic passwords.

Plain Text Authentication
Step1 - To configure plain text authentication, first we have to enable authentication. Authentication can be enabled either under area or for specific interface.
To enable authentication for area
Router(config)#  router ospf 100
Router(config-router)#  network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
Router(config-router)#  area 0 authentication 
This will enable authentication for all the interfaces of the router in area 0.
OR
If we dont want to enable authentication for an area, we can enable it for the specific interface. This is useful if different interfaces that belong to the same area need to use different authentication methods..
Router(config)#  interface fa0/1
Router(config-if)#  ip ospf authentication

Step2 - Next, We have to configure authentication key on the interface
Router(config)#  interface fa0/1
Router(config-if)#  ip ospf authentication-key Cisco123 
Here Cisco123 is the password value.

MD5 Authentication
Step1 - To configure MD5 authentication, first we have to enable authentication.
Router(config)#  router ospf 1
Router(config-router)#  network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
Router(config-router)#  area 0 authentication message-digest 
OR
Router(config)# interface fa0/1
Router(config-router)# ip ospf authentication message-digest
Step2 - Next, We have to configure authentication key on the interface
Router(config)# interface fa0/1
Router(config-router)# ip ospf message-digest-key 10 md5 Cisco123
Here Cisco123 is the password value and 10 is the Key ID (number). It doesn’t matter which key ID you choose but it has to be the same on both ends.
Authentication passwords do not have to be the same throughout an area. However, they must be same between neighbors.

How do I change the reference bandwidth in OSPF?
 You can change the reference bandwidth in Cisco IOS Software Release 11.2 and later using the ospf auto-cost reference-bandwidth command under router ospf. By default, reference bandwidth is 100 Mbps. The ospf link-cost is a 16-bit number. Therefore, the maximum value supported is 65,535.

How does OSPF calculate its metric or cost?
OSPF uses a reference bandwidth of 100 Mbps for cost calculation. The formula to calculate the cost is reference bandwidth divided by interface bandwidth. For example, in the case of Ethernet, it is 100 Mbps / 10 Mbps = 10.

Note: If ip ospf cost cost is used on the interface, it overrides this formulated cost. For more information, refer to OSPF Cost.

Which command enables OSPF for IPv6 on a router?
# ipv6 router ospf process-id

What is the link-state retransmit interval, and what is the command to set it?
OSPF must send acknowledgment of each newly received link-state advertisement (LSA). LSAs are retransmitted until they are acknowledged. The link-state retransmit interval defines the time between retransmissions. We can use the command ip ospf retransmit-interval to set the retransmit interval. The default value is 5 seconds.

When routes are redistributed between OSPF processes, are all shortest path first algorithm (SPF) metrics preserved or is the default metric value used?
The SPF metrics are preserved. The redistribution between them is like redistribution between any two IP routing processes.

How do I stop individual interfaces from developing adjacencies in an OSPF network?
To stop routers from becoming OSPF neighbors on a particular interface, issue the passive-interface command at the interface.

When I have two type 5 link-state advertisements (LSAs) for the same external network in the OSPF database, which path should be installed in the routing table?
When you have two type 5 LSAs for the same external network in the OSPF database, prefer the external LSA that has the shortest path to the Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR) and install that into the IP routing table. Use the show ip ospf border-routers command to check the cost to the ASBR.

Should I use the same process number while configuring OSPF on multiple routers within the same network?
OSPF, unlike Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) or Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) does not check the process number (or autonomous system number) when adjacencies are formed between neighboring routers and routing information is exchanged.

Can we have OSPF run over a GRE tunnel?
Yes we can have OSPF run over a GRE tunnel.

What is an OSPF adjacency?
 An OSPF adjacency is a conceptual link to a neighbor over which LSAs can be sent.

 What are the five OSPF packet types? What is the purpose of each type?
 The five OSPF packet types, and their purposes, are:
Hellos  -      which are used to discover neighbors, and to establish and maintain adjacencies
Updates  - which are used to send LSAs between neighbors
Database Description packets  - which a router uses to describe its link state database to a
neighbor during database synchronization
Link State Requests  - which a router uses to request one or more LSAs from a neighbor's
link state database
Link State Acknowledgments   - used to ensure reliable delivery of LSAs


 What is a link state database? What is link state database synchronization?
 The link state database is where a router stores all the OSPF LSAs it knows of, including its own. Database synchronization is the process of ensuring that all routers within an area have identical link state databases.

What is the default HelloInterval?
The default OSPF HelloInterval is 10 seconds.

What is the default Router Dead Interval?
 The default Router DeadInterval is four times the HelloInterval.

 What is a Router ID? How is a Router ID determined?
 A Router ID is an address by which an OSPF router identifies itself. It is either the numerically highest IP address of all the router's loopback interfaces, or if no loopback interfaces are configured, it is the numerically highest IP address of all the router's LAN interfaces.

What is an area?
 An area is an OSPF sub-domain, within which all routers have an identical link state database.

 What is the significance of area 0?
 Area 0 is the backbone area. All other areas must send their inter-area traffic through the backbone.

What is MaxAge?
 MaxAge, 1 hour, is the age at which an LSA is considered to be obsolete.

Are OSPF routing protocol exchanges authenticated?
Yes, OSPF can authenticate all packets exchanged between neighbors. Authentication may be through simple passwords or through MD5 cryptographic checksums. To configure simple password authentication for an area, use the command ip ospf authentication-key to assign a password of up to eight octets to each interface attached to the area. Then, issue the area x authentication command to the OSPF router configuration to enable authentication. (In the command, x is the area number.)
Cisco IOS Software Release 12.x also supports the enabling of authentication on a per-interface basis. If you want to enable authentication on some interfaces only, or if you want different authentication methods on different interfaces that belong to the same area, use the ip ospf authenticationinterface mode command.

 What is the link-state retransmit interval, and what is the command to set it?

 OSPF must send acknowledgment of each newly received link-state advertisement (LSA). It does this by sending LSA packets. LSAs are retransmitted until they are acknowledged. The link-state retransmit interval defines the time between retransmissions. You can use the command ip ospf retransmit-interval to set the retransmit interval. The default value is 5 seconds.

What are the four OSPF router types?
 The four OSPF router types are:
Internal Routers      =   whose OSPF interfaces all belong to the same area
Backbone Routers  =   which are Internal Routers in Area 0
Area Border Routers = which have OSPF interfaces in more than one area
Autonomous System Boundary Routers  = which advertise external routes into the OSPF Domain

 What are the four OSPF path types?
 The four OSPF path types are:
Intra-area paths
Inter-area paths
Type 1 external paths
Type 2 external paths

What is the purpose of the subnets keyword when redistributing OSPF?

 Without the Subnets keyword, only major network addresses that are not directly connected to the router will be redistributed.

What are the five OSPF network types?
 The four OSPF network types are:
Point-to-point networks
Broadcast networks
Non-broadcast
Non-broadcast multi-access (NBMA) networks
Point-to-multipoint networks
Note- To change network type we use  “Router(config-if)# ip ospf network point-to-multipoint [non-broadcast]” command


 What is a Designated Router?
 A Designated Router is a router that represents a multiaccess network, and the routers connected to the network, to the rest of the OSFP domain.

How does a Cisco router calculate the outgoing cost of an interface?

Cisco IOS calculates the outgoing cost of an interface as 100/BW, where BW is the configured bandwidth of the interface.

What is the purpose of the variable IP-OSPF-Transmit-Delay?

 This variable adds a specified time to the age field of an update. If the delay is not added before transmission over a link, the time in which the link-state advertisement (LSA) propagates over the link is not considered. The default value is 1 second. This parameter has more significance on very low-speed links.

What is a partitioned area?
 An area is partitioned if one or more of its routers cannot send a packet to the area's other routers without sending the packet out of the area.

 What is a virtual link?
 A virtual link is a tunnel that extends an OSPF backbone connection through a non-backbone area.


 What is the difference between OSPF network entries and OSPF router entries?
 OSPF network entries are entries in the route table, describing IP destinations. OSPF router entries are entries in a separate route table that record only routes to ABRs and ASBRs.

Which three fields in the LSA header distinguish different LSAs? Which three fields in the LSA header distinguish different instances of the same LSA?
The three fields in the LSA header that distinguish different LSAs are the Type, Advertising
Router, and the Link State ID fields. The three fields in the LSA header that distinguish different

instances of the same LSA are the Sequence Number, Age, and Checksum fields.

Is it true that only the static option of the virtual link in OSPF allows discontiguous networks, regardless of the mask propagation properties?
 No, virtual links in OSPF maintain connectivity to the backbone from nonbackbone areas, but they are unnecessary for discontiguous addressing. OSPF provides support for discontiguous networks because every area has a collection of networks, and OSPF attaches a mask to each advertisement.

What does the clear ip ospf redistribution command do?
The clear ip ospf redistribution command flushes all the type 5 and type 7 link-state advertisements (LSAs) and scans the routing table for the redistributed routes. This causes a partial shortest path first algorithm (SPF) in all the routers on the network that receive the flushed/renewed LSAs. When the expected redistributed route is not in OSPF, this command may help to renew the LSA and get the route into OSPF.

Does OSPF form adjacencies with neighbors that are not on the same subnet?
 The only time that OSPF forms adjacencies between neighbors that are not on the same subnet is when the neighbors are connected through point-to-point links. This may be desired when using the ip unnumbered command, but in all other cases, the neighbors must be on the same subnet.

How often does OSPF send out link-state advertisements (LSAs)?
OSPF sends out its self-originated LSAs when the LSA age reaches the link-state refresh time, which is 1800 seconds. For more information, refer toLink-State Advertisements.

How do I stop individual interfaces from developing adjacencies in an OSPF network?
To stop routers from becoming OSPF neighbors on a particular interface, issue the passive-interface command at the interface.
In Internet service provider (ISP) and large enterprise networks, many of the distribution routers have more than 200 interfaces. Configuring passive-interface on each of the 200 interfaces can be difficult. The solution in such situations is to configure all the interfaces as passive by default using a single passive-interface default command. Then, configure individual interfaces where adjacencies are desired using the no passive-interfacecommand. For more information, refer to Default Passive Interface Feature.
There are some known problems with the passive-interface default command. Workarounds are listed in Cisco bug ID CSCdr09263 ( registeredcustomers only) .

When I have two type 5 link-state advertisements (LSAs) for the same external network in the OSPF database, which path should be installed in the IP routing table?
When you have two type 5 LSAs for the same external network in the OSPF database, prefer the external LSA that has the shortest path to the Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR) and install that into the IP routing table. Use the show ip ospf border-routers command to check the cost to the ASBR.

Why is it that my Cisco 1600 router does not recognize the OSPF protocol?
Cisco 1600 routers require the Plus feature set image of Cisco IOS Software to run OSPF. Refer to Table 3: Cisco 1600 Series Routers Feature Sets in the Release Notes for Cisco IOS Release 11.2(11) Software Feature Packs for Cisco 1600 Series Routers for more information.

Why is it that my Cisco 800 router does not run OSPF?
Cisco 800 routers do not support OSPF. However, they do support Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP). You can use the Software Advisor ( registered customers only) tool for more information on feature support.

Should I use the same process number while configuring OSPF on multiple routers within the same network?
OSPF, unlike Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) or Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP), does not check the process number (or autonomous system number) when adjacencies are formed between neighboring routers and routing information is exchanged. The only case in which the OSPF process number is taken into account is when OSPF is used as the routing protocol on a Provider Edge to Customer Edge (PE-CE) link in a Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) VPN. PE routers mark OSPF routes with the domain attribute derived from the OSPF process number to indicate whether the route originated within the same OSPF domain or from outside it. If the OSPF process numbering is inconsistent on PE routers in the MPLS VPN, the domain-id OSPF mode command should be used to mark that the OSPF processes with different numbers belong to the same OSPF domain.
This means that, in many practical cases, you can use different autonomous system numbers for the same OSPF domain in your network. However, it is best to use consistent OSPF-process numbering as much as possible. This consistency simplifies network maintenance and complies with the network designer intention to keep routers in the same OSPF domain.

I have a router that runs Cisco Express Forwarding (CEF) and OSPF, who does load-balancing when there are multiple links to a destination?
CEF works by performing the switching of the packet based on the routing table which is populated by the routing protocols such as OSPF. CEF does the load-balancing once the routing protocol table has been calculated. For more details on load balancing, refer to How does load-balancing work?

How does OSPF use two Multilink paths to transfer packets?
OSPF uses the metric aCost, which is related to the bandwidth. If there are equal cost paths (the same bandwidth on both multilinks), OSPF installs both routes in the routing table. The routing table tries to use both links equally, regardless of the interface utilization. If one of the links in the first multilink fails, OSPF does not send all the traffic down the second multilink. If the first multilink peaks 100%, OSPF does not send any traffic down the second multilink because OSPF tries to use both links equally, regardless of the interface utilization. The second is used fully only when the first multilink goes down.

How can you detect the topological changes rapidly?
 In order to have a rapid fault detection of topology changes, the hello timer value needs to be set to 1 second. The hold timer value, which is is four times that of the hello timer, also needs to be configured. There is a possibility of more routing traffic if the hello and hold timer values are reduced from their default values.
Note: Tuning OSPF Timers might result in network as well device resource overhead. Cisco recommends to use Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) instead of tuning the routing protocol timers. BFD also gives sub-second convergence. Refer toOSPF Support for BFD over IPv4 for more information.

Does the 3825 Series Router support the OSPF Stub feature?
 Yes, the 3800 Series Router that runs Advanced IPServices image supports the OSPF Stub feature.

 What does the error message %OSPF-4-FLOOD_WAR: Process process-id re-originates LSA ID ip address type-2 adv-rtr ip address in area area id means?
The error message is due to the some router that is flushing the network LSA because the network LSA received by the router whose LSA ID conflicts with the IP address of one of the router's interfaces and flushes the LSA out of the network. For OSPF to function correctly the IP addresses of transit networks must be unique. If it is not unique the conflicting routers reports this error message. In the error message the router with the OSPF router ID reported as adv-rtr reports this message.

Can we have OSPF run over a GRE tunnel?

Is there a way to manipulate and prefer the Type 3 LSAs to originate from two different areas sent to the non-backbone area?
Type 3 LSA is originated by the Area Border Router (ABR) as a summary route. Manipulating the summary route is not possible in an ABR router.

Is there a drop/flap of an OSPF neighborship when changing an OSPF area type from nssa no-summary to nssa?
 When the NSSA ABR is configured to move from nssa no-summary to nssa, the OSPF neighborship does not flap.

In the %OSPF-5-ADJCHG: Process ID, Nbr [ip-address] on Port-channel31 from FULL to EXSTART, SeqNumberMismatcherror message, what does SeqNumberMismatch signify?
The OSPF neighbor was changed state from FULL to EXSTART because of the receipt of a Database Description (DBD) packet from the neighbor with an unexpected sequence number.
SeqNumberMismatch means that a DBD packet during OSPF neighborship negotiation has been received that either:
  • has an unexpected DBD sequence number
  • unexpectedly has the Init bit set
  • has an Options field differing from the last Options field received in a Database Description packet.
What is the maximum number of OSPF processes (VRF aware) on 7600/6500 platforms?
Cisco IOS has a limit of 32 routing processes. Two of these are saved for static and directly connected routes. The Cisco 7600 router supports 28 OSPF processes per VRF.

How does ISPF impact or improve the OSPF network?
Incremental SPF is more efficient than the full SPF algorithm, thereby allowing OSPF to converge faster on a new routing topology in reaction to a network event. The incremental SPF is designed in such a way that it only updates the affected nodes without rebuilding the whole tree. This results in a faster convergence and saves CPU cycles because the unaffected nodes do not need to be processed. Concerning the best practice ISPF would make more of a difference for a large OSPF domain.
Incremental SPF provides greater improvements in convergence time for networks with a high number of nodes and links. Incremental SPF also provides a significant advantage when the changes in the network topology are further away from the root of the SPT; for example, the larger the network the more significant the impact. A segment of 400-1000 nodes should see improvements. However, it might be hard to verify in a deployed production network without some kind of facility or tool to measure the end-to-end delay. For more information, refer to OSPF Incremental SPF.

Is there a way to compare Cisco NX-OS/IOS OSPF commands?

 Is there any feature of OSPF protocol for quick convergence and a slow re-convergence of routes?
The OSPF Shortest Path First Throttling feature makes it possible to configure SPF scheduling in millisecond intervals and to potentially delay SPF calculations during network instability. SPF is scheduled to calculate the Shortest Path Tree (SPT) when there is a change in topology.
Syntax of the command under OSPF:
timers throttle spf [spf-start] [spf-hold] [spf-max-wait]
Where:
  • spf-start—Initial delay to schedule an SPF calculation after a change, in milliseconds. Range is from 1 to 600000.
  • spf-hold—Minimum hold time between two consecutive SPF calculations, in milliseconds. Range is from 1 to 600000.
  • spf-max-wait—Maximum wait time between two consecutive SPF calculations, in milliseconds. Range is 1 to 600000.
For more information on the OSPF Throttling feature, refer to OSPF Shortest Path First Throttling.

What does BADSEQNUM in the %OSPF-5-NBRSTATE: ospf-101 [5330] Process 101, Nbr 10.253.5.108 on Vlan7 02 from FULL to EXSTART, BADSEQNUM OSPF log message mean?
 This message is related to the DBD exchange process, which uses a sequence number for the synchronization of the database. For some reason a bad sequence number was reported in the DBD packet. This might occur because of transient conditions, which includes packet loss or packet corruption.

Are the multicast IP addresses mapped to MAC-level multicast addresses?
 OSPF sends all advertisements using multicast addressing. Except for Token Ring, the multicast IP addresses are mapped to MAC-level multicast addresses. Cisco maps Token Ring to MAC-level broadcast addresses.

Does the Cisco OSPF implementation support IP TOS-based routing?
 Cisco OSPF only supports TOS 0. This means that routers route all packets on the TOS 0 path, eliminating the need to calculate nonzero TOS paths.

Does the offset-list subcommand work for OSPF?
 The offset-list command does not work for OSPF. It is used for distance vector protocols such as Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), Routing Information Protocol (RIP), and RIP version 2.

Can an OSPF default be originated into the system based on external information on a router that does not itself have a default?

 OSPF generates a default only if it is configured using the command default-information originate and if there is a default network in the box from a different process. The default route in OSPF is 0.0.0.0. If you want an OSPF-enabled router to generate a default route even if it does not have a default route itself, use the command default-information originate always.

When I issue the show ip ospf neighbor command, why do I only see FULL/DR and FULL/BDR, with all other neighbors showing 2-WAY/DROTHER?
 To reduce the amount of flooding on broadcast media, such as Ethernet, FDDI, and Token Ring, the router becomes full with only designated router (DR) and backup designated router (BDR), and it shows 2-WAY for all other routers.

 Why do I not see OSPF neighbors as FULL/DR or FULL/BDR on my serial link?
This is normal. On point-to-point and point-to-multipoint networks, there are no designated routers (DRs) or backup designated routers (BDRs).

Do I need any special commands to run OSPF over BRI/PRI links?
 In addition to the normal OSPF configuration commands, you should use the dialer map command. When using the dialer map command, use thebroadcast keyword to indicate that broadcasts should be forwarded to the protocol address.

Do I need any special commands to run OSPF over asynchronous links?
A. In addition to the normal OSPF configuration commands, you should use the async default routing command on the asynchronous interface. This command enables the router to pass routing updates to other routers over the asynchronous interface. Also, when using the dialer map command, use the broadcast keyword to indicate that broadcasts should be forwarded to the protocol address.

Which Cisco IOS Software release began support for per-interface authentication type in OSPF?
 Per-interface authentication type, as described in RFC 2178 Description: leavingcisco.com , was added in Cisco IOS Software Release 12.0(8).

Can I control the P-bit when importing external routes into a not-so-stubby area (NSSA)?
 When external routing information is imported into an NSSA in a type 7 link-state advertisement (LSA), the type 7 LSA has only area flooding scope. To further distribute the external information, type 7 LSAs are translated into type 5 LSAs at the NSSA border. The P-bit in the type 7 LSA Options field indicates whether the type 7 LSA should be translated. Only those LSAs with the P-bit set are translated. When you redistribute information into the NSSA, the P-bit is automatically set. A possible workaround applies when the Autonomous System Boundary Router (ASBR) is also an Area Border Router (ABR). The NSSA ASBR can then summarize with the not-advertise keyword, which results in not advertising the translated type 7 LSAs.

 Why are OSPF show commands responding so slowly?
 You may experience a slow response when issuing OSPF show commands, but not with other commands. The most common reason for this delay is that you have the ip ospf name-lookup configuration command configured on the router. This command causes the router to look up the device Domain Name System (DNS) names for all OSPF show commands, making it easier to identify devices, but resulting in a slowed response time for the commands. If you are experiencing slow response on commands other than just OSPF show commands, you may want to start looking at other possible causes, such as the CPU utilization


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